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Today in Titanic History - with Searching
Today in
Titanic History

Friday, July 12, 2024
1941 - 1st class survivor Mrs Malvina Helen Cornell died in New York, USA at the age of 84.

1972 - 2nd class survivor Miss Kate Buss died of heart failure / disease in Independence, Oregon, USA at the age of 96.

1892 - 3rd class passenger Mr Peter Andreas Lauritz Andersen S°holt was born.

1911 - 3rd class survivor Miss Helene Barbara Baclini was born to Solomon Baclini and Latifa Qurban Baclini.

1924 - 3rd class survivor Mr Neshan Krekorian married Persa Vartanian, who was not on the Titanic.

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2000: Special Issue


In this month's issue:

*Corey Ann's Article
*Mark's Article
*RMS Titanic Wallpapers and Graphics
*RMS Titanic
*The Timeline

Hi all!
We are sending out a special edition of Making Waves as a tribute to Titanic. As you know it is April the 15th today. And we all know that today is a special day. Please join us in remembering Titanic and all the lives that were so suddenly changed when the greatest ship of history went down.




COREY ANN'S ARTICLE

To do, or not to do...that is the question. Do you salvage people's graves in hopes to preserve a bit of the Edwardian era for future generations? Or, do you let the wreck rest in peace, and leave the site so that future generations can appreciate the wreckage of a grand ship?

In salvaging the graves of the 1500 souls that were lost on the Titanic, you can gain something. You can gain knowledge from a world long gone. Teachers can preach it, and books can teach it, but when you believe it is when you see it, feel it, touch it. Pictures can say a thousand words, but when you hold something in your hands, words can't describe it. This stands true with the artifacts that have been recovered from the wreck. Stories have been told about people bursting into tears after visiting the touring museum that carries a few of the recovered artifacts. I have even been moved after seeing a simple bracelet that had the name "Amy" spelled out in diamonds. These small things bring reality to a situation that seems to be a fairy tale, with a drastic ending. This feeling could have in no way ben recreated with a picture. Without the salvaging of the wreck, this would have never been possible.

In preserving the site, and declaring it a historical landmark, we preserve history. We can preserve the wreck of the Titanic much like the wreck of the Arizona is protected. This is a graveyard, and should be respected as such. Although the bodies are long gone, the wreck itself is the symbol of all that was lost on that long night. 2200 lives were drastically changed at that site, but only 1500 of those people suffered a tragic death. The remaining 700 people also died that night, their lives as they knew it died that night. The people they once were died that night, and that site marks the beginning of 700 lives, as well as the death of 1500. This site also stands as a living monument of sorts to the survivors, whom looked death in the face, and lived to talk about it. This site is probably the largest monument that is not recognized as such. Should we destroy this monument just for a few artifacts and tokens from the wreck? I do not know the answers to this question. To be able to relive the tragedy? Or to let the dead rest in peace. Each person holds their answer in their hearts. I cannot change your mind, nor can you change mine. There are always two sides to every story, and there is never a definitive right or wrong. In this case, this rings true. There is much to be gained from both sides, but which side to choose? So, I leave you with the question, to do? Or not to do?




MARK'S ARTICLE

[ A SIMPLE EXPLANATION ]
It was a simple conclusion for the U.S. and British Board Of Trade Inquiries. Stanley Lord, Captain of the Cunard Line's Californian was clearly verging on the accusation of criminal negligence. It was he, after all, who ignored his officer's observations of a nearby ship which seemed to be in some sort of distress. White rockets were clearly seen by the ship's Second Officer, Herbert Stone, apparently coming from a position near that of a ship's lights that had appeared to be steaming up from the east only minutes earlier.

Rather than wakening his Wireless Operator, Stanley Lord simply chose to attempt to signal the nearby ship by morse lamp, a technique which received no response. Eight white rockets were counted in total, the equivalent of those fired by the White Star Line's Titanic - at that time in a state of peril.

At approximately the same time on the Titanic, Fourth Officer Boxhall fixed his eyes on the lights of another ship, about a third of the size of the Titanic. Why weren't they responding to the distress rockets? Surely they could see a liner the size of the Titanic?

At both of the Board Of Trade hearings, Captain Lord maintained his theory that the Californian was approximately nineteen miles northwest of the Titanic's last reported position. This, he claimed, placed both the ship out of sight of each other, due to the curvature of the Earth. He introduced the idea of a possible third ship that may have been in the area that night. This theory was disregarded, and Stanley Lord was accused of attempting to cover up his "slackness" by shifting the blame to someone else.

[ NEW EVIDENCE UNCOVERED ]
Robert Ballard's discovery of the Titanic wreck in 1985 shed some new light on the mystery surrounding the Californian's inaction in the early morning of April 15, 1912. The discovery made it possible to state the Titanic's final position with reasonable certainty - assuming the wreck fell relatively straight down after the sinking.

The wreck was found lying approximately 13.5 miles east-southeast of her reported CQD position. This is only just south of her reported course, but well to the east, placing the Californian approximately 21 miles northwest - a position fairly close to Captain Lord's estimation. The wreck is also five and a half miles northeast of where the first lifeboat was picked up, which gives the idea that there was a reasonably strong current that night, one which caused the lifeboats to drift to the southwest. With this in consideration, one must assume that the Californian would have also drifted - in a direction which would have brought it closer to the position of the Titanic. But even so, when the Carpathia came to the site in the morning, Californian was still nowhere in sight, even after a night of drifting.

Over the distance, Captain Lord's ship could have certainly still seen the rockets put out by the Titanic, but the actual ship would not have been in sight. If there was a third ship in the area, then the rockets may well have seemed to be coming from above that ship, rather than behind it. This puts Captain Lord's theory in a new light. Was there really a third ship in the area?

[ THE THIRD SHIP ]
Certainly there was some sort of ship between the Titanic and the Californian that night. The Norwegian sealing ship Samson has for many years been the supposed 'mystery ship'. A journal kept by a member of her crew describes how the ship lay near the Titanic, saw the rockets, but rather than sticking around, decided to leave the area in view of the fact that they were engaged in illegal hunting.

This same journal also places the Samson south of Cape Hatteras on Saturday afternoon. This distance is so great, that not even the Mauretania (at the time the fastest liner) could have made it to the waters off Newfoundland in time.

A scholar has also revealed information from official sources in Iceland, which places the Samson in the fishing port of Isafjordhur on April 6 and once again on April 20. This testimony gives the small vessel 14 days to have made the 3000 mile journey to the Titanic and back. That would have made the world record twice over for a six-knot ship. Even still the question remains - if it wasn't the Californian, nor the Samson, who was it? More than likely, it will always remain a mystery, as have many circumstances surrounding the Titanic's fateful voyage.




RMS TITANIC WALLPAPERS & GRAPHICS

Wallpapers:

http://back-to-titanic.com/dl/wall/waves/special00_people.jpg
http://back-to-titanic.com/dl/wall/waves/special00_marconi.jpg
http://back-to-titanic.com/dl/wall/waves/special00_date.jpg
http://back-to-titanic.com/dl/wall/waves/special00_faces.jpg
http://back-to-titanic.com/dl/wall/waves/special00_white-star.jpg




RMS TITANIC

Official Number: 131,428
Number of Decks: Five and two partial
Number of Masts: Two
Rigged: Schooner
Stern: Elliptical
Build: Blencher
Length from part of stem, under the bowsprit, to the aft side of the head of the stern post: 825.5 feet
Length at quarter of depth from top of weather deck at side amidships to bottom of keel: 849.2 feet
Main breadth to outside of plating: 92.5 feet
No. set of engines: Two reciprocating and one turbine
No. of shafts: Three




THE TIMELINE

March 29, 1912 - Belfast -- Trials begin, these will continue daily until April 3rd.

April 3, 1912 - Titanic sets sail for Southampton to pick up remaining crew, and prepare for her departure April 10, 1912. Titanic docks in White Star Line's berth 44.

April 9, 1912 - Titanic's final day in Southampton. One of the few photographs of Smith on the Titanic was taken this day.

April 10, 1912 - Southampton

7:30 AM Captain E J Smith boards, went through the paperwork to declare the RMS Titanic an Emigrant ship.

8:00 AM - Blue Ensign Warrant flag, and a White Star Flag were hoisted. Morning - Lifeboats 11 & 15 were lowered, rowed around the dock, and hoisted back onto the ship.

Coal Bunker #10 was noted as to having a fire in it, although this was not reported to the Board of Trade.

12:00 PM - Captian Smith ordered the whistles to be blown. Blue Peter (the flag that told merchants the ship was departing and to collect any debts) was hoisted to the foremast and the whistles roared twice more. Threes blasts, the signal of departure.

As she passed down the River Test towards the Nab Light Vessel the water displaced by her huge hull raised the volume of water under the New York, moored at Berth 38 just outboard of the Oceanic. New York raised with the water and her ropes went slack. As Titanic passed by the water dropped from under her and her hawsers snapped with a noise like gunshots and her stern started to swing towards Titanic, drawn to her by the suction.

Captain Gale of the tug Vulcan saw what was happening and heard someone shout for him to push New York away. Realizing this was impossible he sent a line to the New York's port quarter and, when that one parted, sent another which held.

While Vulcan was getting her line aboard New York, Captain Smith and Pilot Bowyer had given the order of full astern and Titanic came to a stop then started backing slightly passing the New York's stern. Additional tugs were attaching to the New York by now and she was moved to another mooring spot and Titanic was again on her way.

After making the "S" turn at Calshot Spit and clearing the Bramble she picked up speed again then slowed near the Nab Light Vessel so Pilot Bowyer could be dropped off. She then was ordered ahead, the American flag at her foremast indicating her destination, and stated the 67 mile crossing to Cherbourg France, her first destination.

6:30 PM - Dropped anchor at Cherbourg, and awaited the tenders, Nomadic and Traffic.

8:00 PM - The tenders were away and the anchor was being raised. Ten minutes later she was outward bound, her next stop Queenstown, County Cork, Ireland.

April 11, 1912 - Queenstown

11:30 AM - The anchors were dropped in Queenstown. Some passengers debarked here, including Francis M. Brown, whom took many of the remaining pictures of the Titanic, including the last one of her ever intact. Also here is where the fireman climbed up into the fourth smokestack and waved good-bye as the land departed from view. This was taken as a bad omen by many.

1:30 PM: Titanic hauled the anchor up once again, and left for New York.

April 12, 1912 - Between noon Friday and noon Saturday Titanic covered 519 miles.

April 13, 1912, Saturday - The coal fire that had been in coal bunker 10 was extinguished.

April 14, 1912 - At Sea, her final day

6:00 PM - Charles Herbert Lightoller relieved Chief Office Wilde on the bridge placing him in command of her.

7:15 PM - First Officer Murdoch ordered Lamp Trimmer Samuel Hemming to close the forward forecastle hatch and skylight to prevent the light from interfering with the lookout's vision.

7:30 PM - A wireless from the Californian from Antillian was intercepted by her wireless operator and delivered to the bridge. It warned of three large icebergs 5 miles to the south of Titanic. Lightoller took a stellar sighting and gave the information to Boxhall to plot on the chart.

8:55 PM - Captain Smith left the party he was attending and went to the bridge. He discussed the weather and how calm the sea was with Lightoller.

9:20 PM - Captain Smith went to his cabin leaving word that he should be called "if it becomes the least doubtful".

9:30 PM - Lightoller tells the lookouts to "keep a sharp lookout for ice" and in particular "small ice and growlers" till daylight.

9:40 PM - A wireless comes in from the Mesaba warning of heavy pack ice, large icebergs and field ice. Jack Phillips was alone in the wireless room as Harold Bride was taking a nap. Phillips, busy with traffic for Cape Race, sets the message aside for later delivery to the bridge and it is forgotten.

10:00 PM - Lightoller was relieved by Murdoch. They discussed the evening and Lightoller gave Murdoch the pertinent information that was required when the watch is handed over to another officer and went off to do his rounds of the ship.

At the same time the lookouts, Symons and Jewell, were relieved by Fredrick Fleet and Reginald Lee. Lightoller's orders about ice were passed along to them.

10:50 PM - The Californian's wireless man, Cyril Evans, is told to notify ships in the area that the freighter was stopped in ice. The Captain, Stanley Lord does not tell him to send it "master to master" and Evans sends to Titanic that they are stopped and surrounded by ice. This was sent as a casual message to the Titanic's operator and Evans was rebuffed by him, "Shut up! I'm working Cape Race!"

On Titanic the night went on. Seven bells (11:30) sounded. It was just another routine night aboard ship.

11:40 PM - Fleet and Lee had noticed a slight haze ahead and a bit off either side of the ship around 11:30 and were watching it to see if there was something beyond it. They watched and waited. Fleet noticed something and rang the crow's nest bell three times and grabbed the telephone to the bridge. A voice answered, "Yes. What do you see?", "Iceberg right ahead!", "Thank you."

The men waited their nerves on edge. Why wasn't she turning? Then she started to turn to port and the berg glided past. There was little noise other than ice hitting the deck and they thought it had been a close call, neither one thought that Titanic was in trouble.

On the bridge the officers had been alerted by the sound of the three clangs of the crow's nest bell. Moody answered the phone and repeated the message to Murdoch "Iceberg right ahead". Murdoch rushed to the telegraphs pulling them around to full reverse and calling out to the quartermaster "Hard-a-starboard!" Robert Hitchens at the wheel spun it till it could turn no more and Murdoch rang the alarm bell and threw the lever that would close the watertight doors.

The iceberg bumped and scraped along the hull far below the waterline, about 12 feet above the keel. When it was all over Titanic was taking water in her first 6 compartments.

Smith came on the bridge and asked Murdoch what they had struck. Murdoch answered that it was an iceberg and that he had tried to "port around it". He also said he had closed the watertight doors. Smith asked if the alarm for the doors had been rung and Murdoch said it had.

Boxhall was then sent to inspect the ship and report damage. He saw none himself but was told by one of the Postal Clerks that water was coming in the lower mail sorting room on and they were moving the mail up to the deck above. On his way back to the bridge Boxhall had alerted Lightoller and Pitman and they now reported to the Captain. He then was told by Smith to work out their position and gave it to Smith who headed towards the wireless room. It was now a few seconds before midnight, April 14th 1912 was over.

April 15th, 1912 - North Atlantic

Latitude: 41 degrees 46 minutes north, Longitude: 50 degrees 14 minutes west.

12:00 AM - Thomas Andrews of Harland and Wolff is on the bridge and he and Smith take a fast tour of the ship's forward area. They are back on the bridge in 10 minutes.

12:10 AM - Smith asks how long and Andrews after some fast calculations tells him "An hour and a half. Possibly two. Not much longer." Smith orders the boats uncovered.

12:15 AM - Captain Smith walks into the wireless room and tells Phillips to send the call for assistance he hands him the paper with the position of the ship and returns to the bridge. The order has been given to get the passengers up and into lifebelts. Many, still confused as to why they have been awakened, line up at the purser's office to get their valuables. Most are still unaware of the urgency and make no preparations to leave the ship.

12:25 AM - Order has been passed to load the boats.

12:45 AM - Boat number 7, is the first to be lowered with 28 people in a boat designed for 65. The boat rows away from the ship and it's passengers sit there for the next 90 minutes watching Titanic sink.

In the third class dining room a number of people are praying, rosaries in their hands.

On the bridge Boxhall has Quartermaster Rowe start firing distress rockets which shoot up to a height of 800 feet and explode in a burst of 12 white stars. Boxhall also sees a ship approach head on with two masthead lights visible to his naked eye. He believes the ship to be a four masted steamer.

Lightoller lowers boat 4 to the promenade deck to load people through the windows there but the windows are closed. He sends a hand to open them and the group that has assembled there waits. The bulkhead between numbers 5 and 6 boiler rooms bursts and water rushes in. Engineer Harvey orders Leading Fireman Barrett up the escape ladder and turns to assist his friend Engineer Shepherd, the two are swallowed up by the water.

12:55 AM - Boat 6 portside is lowered. Margaret Brown is picked up and dropped into the descending boat. The passengers notice there is only one man present and call for more to aid in rowing. Major Arthur Peuchen is allowed by Lightoller to slide down the falls, the only man Lightoller will let in a boat this night. Boat 6 contains 28 passengers.

As boat 5 starts down Bruce Ismay stands by after helping load it telling the sailors to "Lower away! Lower away!" Officer Lowe tells him "You want me to lower away quickly? You'll have me drown the whole lot of them!" Ismay, now silent, stands back and keeps quiet.

Boat 3 is loaded by Murdoch and when there are no more women present men are allowed to get in. The boat leaves with 32 aboard, 11 of them crewmen. Murdoch is also in charge of Emergency Boat 1, forward, starboard. The boat holds 40, it leaves with 12. Seven of them are crew.

Other boats leave, more passengers in each than the ones before. People are starting to realize that the danger is real.

1:40 AM - Most of the boats forward have gone. Collapsible C has been put in the davits in place of the now departed number 1 and Chief Officer Wilde calls for woman and children, no one responds. Ismay and first class passenger Billy Carter (the owner of the Renault in forward hold #2) get into the boat and it is lowered. By now the list is pronounced enough that the boat has to be pushed away from the hull so the rivets will not tear the canvas that makes up it's sides.

1:55 AM - Lightoller returns to load boat 4 through the windows of the promenade deck. Again a boat is lowered with too few seamen and Quartermaster Perkins slides down the falls to help. Seven more men are pulled from the water, two die of exposure.

Collapsible D is now in the davits once occupied by boat 2. There are 1500 aboard and 47 seats in the boat. Lightoller has the men lock arms and form a circle around the boat allowing only women and children to pass. The boat starts to lower and two men jump into it from the deck below.

2:05 AM - Captain Smith goes to the wireless room and releases the operators from their duty. Phillips starts to gather their papers while Bride keeps working the key. Smith returns to his bridge to await his fate.

2:10 AM - Collapsible B is washed from the deck while the seamen are attempting to attach the davits. The men working on it including Lightoller find themselves in the water. The boat floats away upside down.

Father Thomas Byles hears confessions and recites the rosary with the faithful on the aft end of the boat deck.

The band, who have been playing ragtime and light music stop playing. Their leader, Wallace Hartley, starts what many believe to be the final tune of the evening, the hymn "Nearer My God To Thee" which he had always said he reserved for his funeral.

She sinks faster now. People are washed off the forward end of the boat deck, the bridge is submerging. The forward funnel snaps it's guy wires and crashes down crushing the starboard bridge wing and many of the swimmers in doing so. The stern rises from the water, the 1500 souls remaining move further and further aft.

There is a roar as everything not bolted down breaks free and rushes forward. The lights, kept alive by the engineers (all were lost), flicker once then go out for good. The second and third funnels break away.

More noises are heard and she breaks apart between the 3rd and 4th funnels the water filled bow section planes away underwater, the fourth funnel goes the way of the others and the stern settles back almost level then rises perpendicular and as at her launch, slowly at first, then with gathering momentum it slides beneath the surface.

2:20 AM - She is gone.

3:30 AM - The Titanic survivors adrift in the lifeboats, first saw Carpathia's Rockets.

4:10AM: Carpathia arrived at the site of the sinking, and began to take on survivors. Lifeboat 2 was the first to be picked up.

8:10AM: Lifeboat 12, the last one afloat, was picked up by the Carpathia.

8:30AM: The Californian arrived at the site.

8:50AM: Carpathia sets sail for New York, leaving the Californian to pick up the bodies.






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